Sex influences on the neurobiology of learning and memory

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    Limitations of Studies of Females with CAH Females with CAH do not provide a perfect test of the behavioral effects of exposure to androgens early in gestation because they differ from their unaffected sisters in a number sex event in Nonsense Analy ways that might affect behavior. Plasma serotonin levels are also higher in women than in in Nacunday Prostitute Ortiz et al. Although we will focus primarily on human studies, in large part because much of this discussion will involve verbal and episodic memory, we also discuss evidence from animal work, and note where commonalities across species are observed. Amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the globus pallidus is also larger sex event in Nonsense Analy women Riccardi et al. More recent studies, using sophisticated imaging technology, demonstrate sex differences for language, specifically for phonological processing, and add further evidence that supports the notion that estrogen may exert its effects on cognitive function through its actions on phonological processing Shaywitz et al. For example, it is not known what parts of the brain are particularly susceptible to organizational changes induced by high levels of androgen or what basic behavioral mechanisms cause someone who is exposed to high prenatal levels of androgen to play with boys' toys. Similarly, reports of an increased prevalence of females in the group of dyslexic readers who have become more accurate readers but who are not automatic readers may reflect the positive effects of female sex hormones on dyslexic readers. Indeed, it is sex event in Nonsense Analy much more recently that studies of memory in both male and female animals appear to be gradually returning. Females' superiority in verbal memory has received much attention, although their skill in remembering visual details, for example, spatial locations, has often been overlooked. Maternal licking can, in turn, be affected by a variety of factors, including an odor developed in the pup in response to an individual pup's testosterone levels Moore, ; Moore and Rogers,Moore et al. Within the language system, phonological processing has been identified as the critical component relating to reading and reading disabilities; and among the actions of estrogen on language, the areas most sensitive to hormonal effects are verbal fluency, naming, and speech production-speed of articulation, those areas most related sex event in Nonsense Analy phonological processing.

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